Alternative Approaches for Acute Inhalation Toxicity Testing

PETA Science Consortium International is developing and gaining scientific confidence in reliable and relevant non-animal testing approaches that protect human health. Building upon 2015 workshops on inhalation toxicity testing of nanomaterials (here) and acute systemic toxicity testing (here), the Science Consortium and the US NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) co-hosted a meeting and webinar series to address current practices for acute inhalation toxicity testing.

In follow-up to this workshop, the Science Consortium launched the INSPIRE (In vitro systems to predict respiratory toxicity) Initiative to show the utility of in vitro approaches to assess the effects of inhaled substances on the respiratory tract. It has funded the testing of two silanes and two surfactants as part of this initiative.


Sharma M, Stucki AO, Verstraelen S, Stedeford TJ, Jacobs A, Maes F, Poelmans D, Van Laer J, Remy S, Frijns E, Allen DG, Clippinger AJ. Human cell-based in vitro systems to assess respiratory toxicity: A case study using silanes. Toxicol Sci. 2023;195(2):213-230.

Clippinger AJ, Allen D, Jarabek AM, Corvaro M, Gaça M, Gehen S, Hotchkiss JA, Patlewicz G, Melbourne J, Hinderliter P, Yoon M, Huh D, Lowit A, Buckley B, Bartels M, BéruBé K, Wilson DM, Indans I, Vinken M. Alternative approaches for acute inhalation toxicity testing to address global regulatory and non-regulatory data requirements: an international workshop report. Toxicol In Vitro. 2018;48:53-70.

Clippinger AJ, Allen D, Behrsing H, BéruBé KA, Bolger MB, Casey W, DeLorme M, Gaça M, Gehen SC, Glover K, Hayden P, Hinderliter P, Hotchkiss JA, Iskandar A, Keyser B, Luettich K, Ma-Hock L, Maione A, Makena P, Melbourne J, Milchak L, Ng S, Paini A, Page K, Patlewicz G, Prieto P, Raabe H, Reinke E, Roper C, Rose J, Sharma M, Spoo W, Thorne PA, Wilson DM, Jarabek AM. Pathway-based predictive approaches for non-animal assessment of acute inhalation toxicity. Toxicol In Vitro. 2018; 52:131-145.